Underground laboratories have been around for a while now. Some research just can't be done on land for security reasons. Say hello to DARK MATTER!
Just to name a few: direct searches for dark matter particles, double beta decay, proton decay, solar neutrinos, geoneutrinos etc. Of course, other forms of dark matter research can be done in space or in accelerator experiments.
Kola Super Deep Borehole – Kola, Russia
SNO and SNOLAB - Sudbury, Canada
Scientists know they exist but they are so small and travel so fast that seeing one in almost impossible. This is exactly why SNOLAB was built, where deep underground in SNOLAB, the level of cosmic rays is reduced 10 millionfold.
DUSEL Lead - South Dakota, USA
Aquarius Reef Base – Florida Keys, USA
Lake Vostok – Vostok Station, Antarctica
One of the most surprising and amazing discoveries of our time occurred in 1996 deep in the vast frozen wilderness of Antarctica. Russian scientists were drilling ice core samples. At just under 4000 feet (1.3km), the samples became clean. This, at first, baffled the scientific community until they realized they had discovered the world’s largest warm water sub glacial lake.
Super Kamiokande – Hida, Japan
The neutrinos pass through almost everything at close to the speed of light, including people. In water, however, they leave a slight trail of light, called Cherenkov radiation, the purer the water, the more visible the trip. When neutrinos collide with the nucleus of an atom, they emit a flash of light, leaving an imprint on a ring detector on the specialized wall of the tank
IceCube – South Pole
The IceCube Observatory is designed to detect a blue light, called Cherenkov radiation, created by the nuclear reactions of individual neutrinos crashing into ice atoms. Cherenkov radiation is generally considered to be the equivalent of a sonic boom for light. The telescope searches for neutrinos from the most violent astrophysical sources – events like exploding stars, gamma ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars.