Traditionally, four monks work on a single mandala, each taking one of the four quadrants. Each of these four monks has an assistant to fill in their detailed outlines with colors. All the monks begin work on the mandala from the center, moving outwards. Balance is maintained by waiting for all the monks to complete their sections, before moving on to the next. But even before they can start their sand work, the monks perform an opening ceremony. Then, a chalk is used to make a blueprint of the mandala, starting with a single dot at the very center. Four lines are drawn from this dot, after which each monk will work in his own quadrant. The blueprint is completed, the outlines filled with colored sand, made from crushed white stone and dyed. A serrated, funnel-like device is used for the application of the sand, known as chakpu. Two chakpus are scraped against each other, producing a vibration that releases sand onto the blueprint.